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HET WEER. Dat schrijven Burgemeester en Wethouders aan de raad. Ook was de brandweerkazerne niet goed genoeg bereikbaar en waren de aanrijroutes nauwelijks of onvoldoende bekend bij de meldkamer.
Valkenburg neemt voor de editie van dit jaar, die afgelopen weekeinde officieel van start ging, in allerijl maatregelen.
In samenspraak met de Veiligheidsregio Limburg Zuid is besloten extra beveiligers in te zetten, routes beter af te zetten en te.
Belangrijkste maatregel: het invoeren van een nieuw verkeersplan, deze keer opgesteld door een extern bureau, Traffic Support.
Waarnemend burgemeester Martin Eurlings laat weten dat de problemen ontstaan doordat het elk jaar drukker wordt tijdens Kerststad. Op sommige dagen komen meer dan touringcars naar Valkenburg.
De stad ziet het nieuwe verkeersplan als onderdeel van een kwaliteitsslag voor alle evenementen. Het beleid is daarom een paar maanden geleden al flink aangescherpt.
De ov-chipkaart heeft zich ontwikkeld tot een ware geldmachine. In vijf jaar tijd maakte Translink, het bedrijf achter de kaart, 55 miljoen euro winst met de plastic pasjes.
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Translink, eigendom van de openbaar vervoerbedrijven, leed in de eerste jaren verlies. Maar op een. Dat is een rendement dat vergelijkbaar is met dat van Apple.
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They were already awarded at the first European Newspaper Award. The middle area is taken up by photos of victims, arranged as a picture block.
The size of the headline is well-adjusted to the double page. The reading follows the logical process from left to right. Breakers appear in small variable columns.
Struikelstenen worden niet alleen voor joodse slachtoffers gelegd, maar ook voor verzetshelden, sinti en andere slachtoffers van het naziregime.
De portretten hiernaast zijn van Limburgse overledenen van wie de naam al op een steen staat of binnenkort op een struikelsteen komt.
De vrouw op de laatste foto is Marcelle Devries. FOTO MSC. Ze houden er maar mee op, meldden ze twee weken geleden in deze krant. De SPfractie in Provinciale Staten stelt een paar vinnige vragen.
De film totale kosten De Stolpersteine zelf zijn dat trouwens ook: kunstenaar Demnig krijgt euro voor elk van de ruim Een Nederlandse delegatie is ooit nog eens afgereisd om te bepleiten of het niet goedkoper kan maar vangt bot, vertelt Grünfeld.
Demnig heeft de Europese licentie voor het project. Sommige steden Amersfoort, Alkmaar kiezen er al voor om zelf steentjes te maken.
Ze kijkt recht in de lens, vriendelijk maar timide. Ze heeft geen flauw benul wat haar te wachten staat als ze in de nacht van 25 augustus met driehonderd andere Limburgse joden naar het station in Maastricht loopt.
Als jarige alleenstaande heeft ze zich gehoorzaam gemeld voor de Arbeitseinsatz, in de hoop dat de dwangarbeid haar ouders dan bespaard blijft.
Vijf dagen later leeft ze niet meer; via Westerbork belandt ze in Auschwitz waar ze bij aankomst meteen wordt vergast. Niets weet hij van de bewogen geschiedenis van zijn imposante jugendstilhuis aan de Bosscherweg als hij het koopt — Marcelles ouderlijk huis.
Vaag weet hij dat er joodse bewoners zijn geweest; hij is zelf joods en vindt dat dus wel interessant. Pas als een nazaat van de familie Devries plots op de oprit staat met de vraag of hij het huis van zijn opa en oma eens mag zien, begint het te leven.
Dat gebeurt op 22 juni Het is niet het eerste messing steentje met namen, deportatiedata en sterfdata van Holocaust-slachtoffers in de provincie.
Op 3 december plaatst de Duitse kunstenaar Gunter Demnig de allereerste Stolpersteine in Limburg op de Kerkraadse Markt. Ook in Vaals , Gulpen en Eygelshoven verschijnen de stenen.
Twee maanden na Maastricht volgt Heerlen, waar stichting Lodewijk Foijer het voortouw neemt. Hoensbroek , Valkenburg en Sittard volgen.
En daarmee komt de Stolpersteine-olievlek in noordelijke richting tot stilstand. Totdat emeritus hoogleraar Fred Grünfeld en zijn vrouw Marij van den Bosch op het idee komen van hun grote project: het leven van de Limburgse Holocaust-slachtoffers belichten.
Die droom vereist geld en op 25 juni zetten ze hun eerste schreden op het subsidiepad. In het provinciehuis overleggen ze met een ambtenaar hoe een aanvraag eruit moet zien.
Het gesprek vindt plaats op 7 januari Grünfeld c. We hebben achttien extra documenten ingediend!
Fred Grunfeld, emeritus hoogleraar. Naast de honderd steentjes die dan al in Maastricht liggen, willen ze er nog eens in de hoofdstad plaatsen.
Ook voor Kerkrade 26 stenen , Heerlen 20 , Valkenburg 23 en Sittard-Geleen hebben ze plannen. Kosten voor alleen de steentjes: Daarnaast willen ze een film laten maken euro , een app voor wandelingen langs de stenen Het geheel af te sluiten met een symposium van de universiteit Maastricht en Studium Generale euro.
Stip aan de horizon: de herdenking van 75 jaar einde van de Tweede Wereldoorlog in Gouverneur Bovens is enthousiast en stelt voor het project uit te breiden naar de hele provincie.
Zo ontstaat een fatsoenlijke treinverbinding via Venlo tussen Eindhoven en Düsseldorf. Ieder alternatief van een IJzeren Rijn is in de ogen van de nieuwe regering onhaalbaar want te duur.
Bovendien verwacht de nieuwe coalitie massief verzet van gemeenten langs een IJzeren Rijn. Maximaal twee daarvan mogen in de adventstijd worden gepland.
De deuren blijven op de christelijke hoogfeestdagen van Pasen, Kerstmis en Pinksteren gesloten. Duitse en Nederlandse kinderen moeten zo vroeg mogelijk met elkaar kennismaken.
De politie gaat als vanouds op onregelmatige tijden her en der controleren. De nieuwe christen-democratische-liberale regering van Noordrijn-Westfalen schrapt tachtig procent van de nieuwbouwplannen voor windmolenparken.
Bovendien krijgen de gemeenten de vrijheid om te bepalen of en waar ze windmolens willen laten bouwen. Dat blijkt uit het coalitieakkoord van CDU en FDP dat gistermiddag door het parlement in Düsseldorf werd goedgekeurd.
Het windmolenbesluit is een radicale breuk met het beleid tot nu toe van de sociaal-democraten en de Groenen, die de verkiezingen verloren.
Omdat Duitsland na de kernramp in Japan besloot te stoppen met atoomenergie, werd ingezet op alternatieve energiebronnen zoals wind.
Gemeenten werden verplicht een bepaald aantal windmolens te plaatsen. Om de energievoorziening zeker te stellen wil de nieuwe regering tot doorgaan met het winnen van bruinkool in de enorme groeves, vlak over de grens in Midden-Limburg.
De hoop is erop gevestigd dat nieuwe technieken voor opslag van energie tot snellere afbouw van de bruinkoolgroeves leidt.
De bruinkoolwinning heeft grote gevolgen voor de grondwaterstand, ook in Limburg. Volgens Optendrenk hebben de maatregelen die zijn genomen gewerkt en wordt nauwgezet in de gaten gehouden of dat zo blijft.
De raadkamer heeft gisteren het verzoek van het OM om opheffing van de schorsing van die voorlopige hechtenis vorig jaar, toegewezen.
De jarige terreurverdachte uit Wanssum die afgelopen vrijdag na het verlaten van de moskee in Venray werd aangehouden blijft vastzitten tot de rechtszaak op 15 augustus.
Het meisje is vorig jaar juli op jarige leeftijd aangehouden in verband met terrorisme. Over de exacte verdenking wil het Openbaar Ministerie OM niets zeggen vanwege de jeugdige leeftijd van de verdachte.
Het meisje, een Nederlandse bekeerlinge, werd vorig jaar onder voorwaarden vrijgelaten. We zijn er de afgelopen weken weer mee doodgegooid. Selfies gemaakt op zo ongeveer alle bekende plekken op deze aardkloot.
IJdelheid kan tegenwoordig dankzij het mobieltje makkelijker dan ooit worden tentoongespreid. Toch is er niets nieuws onder de zon; de selfie is zo oud als de mensheid.
Al die vrienden wier gezichten je kunt uittekenen op plekken die je kunt dromen. Ja beste Tim, ik weet dat je op Kos op vakantie bent en het nog altijd geinig vindt om op een opblaasbare banaan te zitten.
Ik waardeer je totale gebrek aan schaamte om als man van 47, kirrend van de pret, een selfie te maken op een banaan met allemaal Oh Oh Cherso-achtige pubers.
Dat vond je vorig jaar ook toen je ook al die selfie van je jubeltenen in de vloedlijn postte. Vakantie-selfies zijn net rijstwafels: ze smaken nergens naar, maar ze happen zo lekker weg.
En je bent tenminste verlost van die haast vergeten kwelling: dia-avondjes. Waarop je jezelf urenlang de tering verveelde terwijl oom Henk de vakantiedia's van een weekje.
Zijn we door de sociale media allemaal veranderd in ijdeltuiten waar Cristiano Ronaldo zich nog voor zou schamen? Nee hoor. Het valt alleen nu meer op omdat het door diezelfde sociale media zo makkelijk is jezelf te manifesteren.
De mens heeft al zo lang hij bestaat zendingsdrang. Maar waar je zelfs. Dat wordt op een leuke, speelse manier duidelijk gemaakt in het onlangs bij Lemniscaat verschenen boek Selfie: het veranderende gezicht van zelfportretten.
Dik zevenduizend jaar voor Christus gemaakt door grotbewoners die hun handpalm tegen de muren drukten en daar omheen door een hol rietje verf bliezen.
Gewoon om duidelijk te maken dat ze er geweest waren. Loop de mergelgrotten van Maastricht binnen en je ziet dat de mensheid in duizenden jaren beschaving geen sikkepit veran-.
Drie minuten later was hij dood. Dat beeld vergeet ik nooit meer. Daar stond ik, 18 jaar en enig overgebleven kind. Twee zusjes waren als baby al aan difterie gestorven en mijn oudere broer overleed indirect aan de gevolgen van oorlogshandelingen.
Alle drie zijn bij een hinderlaag in een ravijn gestort. Twee meteen dood, mijn broer een tijd daarna. Het zou helaas niet het laatste afscheid en de laatste tegenslag in mijn leven zijn.
Ik moest er niet aan denken, je hele leven op twee vierkante meter staan. Ik was sportief, voetbalde, volleyde, was hardloopkampioen.
Ik nam de benen bij de ambachtsschool. Ik was namelijk goed genoeg bevonden voor de hbs, wilde studeren en iets in de sportwereld gaan doen.
Maar tegelijkertijd was ik ook een heel brave jongen. Uiteindelijk was ik niet rebels genoeg om vaders wil te weerstaan. Pas na een jaar kreeg ik een fiets, helaas zonder banden.
Ik heb toen zelf twee dikke tuinslangen om de wielen heen gelegd. Zo ging dat in die jaren. Er stond nog een paar duizend gulden open, dat was in een kapitaal.
Mijn vader was te zeer een goedzak. Hoe dan ook, het grootste deel van uitstaande betalingen is nooit afgerekend. Ik was meer een streber, wilde het beter aanpakken, groter groeien.
Het mag allemaal niet baten. Het voorstel om de aanvraag, op De brief daarover slaat bij Grünfeld en zijn metgezellen in als een bom.
Vernieuwend is het plan ook niet en het past ook niet binnen de subsidieregels voor toerisme. Pleister op de wonde: de provincie heeft de aanvraag voorgelegd aan het Oranjefonds.
Meer elegantie, meer stijl. Samen met mijn vrouw Milly had ik het oog laten vallen op een pand aan de Parade in Venlo, een A-locatie.
Maar we hadden niet genoeg geld. Mijn buurmeisje Maria was getrouwd met Wim Schutte, de baas van Prins van Oranje, het voormalige concertgebouw van Venlo.
Die leende me het bedrag van vele tienduizenden gulden dat ik nodig had. Dat zou nu niemand meer doen, maar in die tijd vertrouwden mensen elkaar nog en bestond er nog zoiets als naoberschap.
Saamhorigheid, die na de oorlog heel vanzelfsprekend was. Binnen zeven jaar had ik alles terugbetaald.
Ik had op de een of andere manier het vak in de vingers. Milly en ik kwamen uit een eenvoudig gezin, maar we hielden allebei van klasse en een beetje grandeur.
No belief really gains ground until it is forbidden ; then the martyrs play their part, and there is a consequent increase in the number of the followers.
The Act of shows the opinion that was entertained in the highest circles relative to the baneful influence of witches and the menace their presence was to the safety of the community at large ; in this no doubt the effect of the " evil eye," or of the satirical verses of Bards, would be equally classed with witchcraft proper.
From various hints and incidental notices, such as in the account of the bewitching of Sir George Pollock, or in Law's statement relative to the case of Mr.
Future students of old documents may be able to bear out this statement, and to supply information at present unavailable. To deal with the subject of witchcraft in general, with its psychology or with the many strange items which it included, would be out of place in a work exclusively devoted to one particular country, nor indeed could it be adequately dealt with in the space at our disposal ; it is necessary, how- ever, to say a few words on the matter in order to show by comparison how much pain and unhappiness the people of Ireland escaped through the non-prevalence of this terrible cult amongst them.
It would be interesting indeed to work through the extant Records for the purpose of seeing how often torture was judicially used on criminals in Ireland, and probably the student who undertakes the investigation will find that this terrible and illogical method of extracting the truth!
Nor is it at all clear that torture was employed in England in similar trials. Was its use ever legalised by Act of Parliament in either country?
In Scotland, on the other hand, it was employed with terrible frequency ; there was hardly a trial for witchcraft or sorcery but some of the unfortunates incriminated were subjected to this terrible ordeal.
Even as late as torture was judicially applied to 1 Notestein, op. But Scotland, even at its worst, fades into insignificance before certain parts of the Continent, where torture was used to an extent and degree that can only be termed hellish ; the appalling ingenuity displayed in the various methods of applying the " question extraordinary " seems the work of demons rather than of Christians, and makes one blush for humanity.
The repe- tition of torture was forbidden, indeed, but the infamous Inquisitor, James Sprenger, imagined a subtle distinction by which each fresh application was a continuation and not a repetition of the first ; one sorceress in Germany suffered this continuation no less than fifty-six times.
Nor was the punishment of death by fire for witchcraft or sorcery employed to any extent in Ireland. We have one un- doubted instance, and a general hint of some others as a sequel to this.
How the two witches were put to death in we are not told, but probably it was by hanging. On the Con- tinent the stake was in continual request. In three hundred persons were burnt alive for this crime at Como.
In the persecution of those who practised magical arts no rank or class in society was spared ; the noble equally with the peasant was liable to torture and death.
This was especially true of the earlier stages of the movement when sorcery rather than witch- craft was the crime committed.
Sorcery was, so to speak, more of an aristocratic pursuit ; the sorcerer was the master of the Devil until his allotted time expired , and compelled him to do his bidding : the witch generally belonged to the lower classes, embodied in her art many practices which lay on the border- land between good and evil, and was rather the slave of Satan, who almost invariably proved to be a most faithless and unreliable employer.
For an illustration from this country of the broad distinction between the two the reader may compare Dame Alice Kyteler with Florence Newton.
Anybody might become a victim of the witch epidemic ; noblemen, scholars, monks, nuns, titled ladies, bishops, clergy none were immune from accusation and con- demnation.
Nay, even a saint once fell under suspicion; in S. Francis de Sales was accused of having been present at a sorcerers' sabbath, and narrowly escaped being burnt by the populace.
In conclusion, we have not considered it necessary to append a bibliography. The books that have been consulted and which have contained no information relative to Ireland are, unfortunately, all too numerous, while those that have proved of use are fully referred to in the text or footnotes of the present volume.
We should like how- ever to acknowledge our indebtedness to such general works on the subject as Sir Walter Scott's Demonology and Witchcraft, C. Sharpe's History of Witchcraft in Scotland, John Ashton's The Devil in Britain and America, and Professor Wallace Note- stein's History of Witchcraft in England, Washington, ; the last three contain most useful bibliographical notices.
For a good bird's-eye view of witch- craft on the Continent from the earliest times we can recommend J. Franfais' Ueglise et la Sorcellerie Paris : Nourry, CHAPTER II A.
The coffin-shaped tombstone of one of her ancestors, Jose de Keteller, who died in , is preserved at S. Mary's church; the inscription is in Norman-French and the lettering is Lombardic.
The lady in question must have been far removed from the popular conception of a witch as an old woman of striking ugliness, or else her powers of attraction were very remarkable, for she had succeeded in leading four hus- bands to the altar.
She had been married, first, to William Outlawe of Kilkenny, banker ; secondly, to Adam le Blund of Callan ; thirdly, to Richard de Valle all of whom she was supposed to have got rid of by poison ; and fourthly, to Sir John le Poer, whom it was said she deprived of his natural senses by philtres and in- cantations.
The Bishop of Ossory at this period was Richard de Ledrede, a Franciscan friar, and an Englishman by birth. He soon learnt that things were not as they should be, for when making a visitation of his diocese early in he found by an Inquisition, in which were five knights and numerous 26 DAME ALICE KYTELER nobles, that there was in the city a band of heretical sorcerers, at the head of whom was Dame Alice.
The following charges were laid against them. They had denied the faith of Christ absolutely for a year or a month, according as the object they desired to gain through sorcery was of greater or less importance.
During all that period they believed in none of the doctrines of the Church ; they did not adore the Body of Christ, nor enter a sacred building to hear mass, nor make use of consecrated bread or holy water.
They offered in sacrifice to demons living animals, which they dismembered, and then distributed at cross-roads to a certain evil spirit of low rank, named the Son of Art.
They sought by their sorcery advice and responses from demons. In order to arouse feelings of love or hatred, or to inflict death or disease on the bodies of the faithful, they made use of powders, unguents, ointments, and candles of fat, which were compounded as follows.
They took the entrails of cocks sacrificed to demons, certain horrible worms, various unspecified herbs, dead men's nails, the hair, brains, and shreds of the cerements of boys who were buried unbaptized, with other abominations, all of which they cooked, with various incantations, over a fire of oak-logs in a vessel made out of the skull of a decapitated thief.
The children of Dame Alice's four husbands accused her before the Bishop of having killed their fathers by sorcery, and of having brought on them such stolidity of their senses that they bequeathed all their wealth to her and her favourite son, William Outlawe, to the impoverishment of the other children.
They also stated that her present husband, Sir John le Poer, had been reduced to such a condition by sorcery and the use of powders that he had 28 DAME ALICE KYTELER become terribly emaciated, his nails had dropped off, and there was no hair left on his body.
No doubt he would have died had he not been warned by a maid-servant of what was happening, in consequence of which he had forcibly possessed himself of his wife's keys, and had opened some chests in which he found a sackful of horrible and detestable things which he transmitted to the bishop by the hands of two priests.
The said dame had a certain demon, an incubus, named Son of Art, or Robin son of Art, who had carnal knowledge of her, and from whom she admitted that she had received all her wealth.
According to another source the sacrifice to the evil spirit is said to have consisted of nine red cocks, and nine peacocks' eyes.
Upon this William Outlawe formed a strong party to oppose the Bishop's demands, amongst which were the Chan- cellor, his near relative, and Sir Arnold le Poer, the Seneschal of Kilkenny, who was probably akin to Dame Alice's fourth hus- band.
The Chancellor in reply wrote to the Bishop stating that a warrant for arrest could not be obtained until a public process of excommunication had been in force for forty days, while Sir Arnold also wrote re- questing him to withdraw the case, or else to ignore it.
Finding such obstacles placed in his way the Bishop took the matter into his own hands, and cited the Dame, who was then in her son's house in Kilkenny, to appear before him.
As might be ex- 30 DAME ALICE KYTELER pected, she ignored the citation, and fled immediately. Foiled in this, he cited her son William for heresy.
Upon this Sir Arnold came with William to the Priory of Kells, where De Ledrede was holding a visitation, and besought him not to proceed further in the matter.
Finding entreaty useless he had recourse to threats, which he speedily put into execution. As the Bishop was going forth on the following day to con- tinue his visitation he was met on the confines of the town of Kells by Stephen le Poer, bailiff of the cantred of Overk, and a posse of armed men, by whom he was arrested under orders from Sir Arnold, and lodged the same day in Kilkenny jail.
This naturally caused tremendous excitement in the city. The place became ipso facto sub- ject to an interdict ; the Bishop desired the Sacrament, and it was brought to him in solemn procession by the Dean and Chapter.
Seeing this, William Outlawe nervously informed Sir Arnold of it, who thereupon decided to keep the Bishop in closer restraint, but subsequently changed his mind, and allowed him to have companions with him day and night, and also granted free admission to all his friends and servants.
After De Ledrede had been detained in prison for seventeen days, and Sir Arnold having thereby attained his end, viz. The latter refused to sneak out like a re- leased felon, but assumed his pontificals, and, accompanied by all the clergy and a throng of people, made his way solemnly to S.
Canice's Cathedral, where he gave thanks to God. With a pertinacity we cannot but admire he again cited William Outlawe by public proclamation to appear before him, but before the day arrived the Bishop 32 DAME ALICE KYTELER was himself cited to answer in Dublin for having placed an interdict on his diocese.
He excused himself from attending on the plea that the road thither passed through the lands of Sir Arnold, and that in con- sequence his life would be in danger.
De Ledrede had been arrested by Le Peer's orders in Lent, in the year 1 On Monday following the octave of Easter the Seneschal held his court in Kilkenny, to which entrance was denied the Bishop ; but the latter, fully robed, and carrying the Sacrament in a golden vase, made his way into the court-room, and " ascending the tribunal, and reverently elevating the Body of Christ, sought from the Seneschal, Justiciary, and Bailiffs that a hearing should be granted to him.
He attended accordingly, and found the King's and the Archbishop's courts against him to a man, but the upshot of the matter was that the Bishop won the day ; Sir Arnold was humbled, and sought his pardon for the wrongs he had done him.
This was granted, and in the presence of the council and the assembled prelates they mutually gave each other the kiss of peace.
Affairs having come to such a satisfactory conclusion the Bishop had leisure to turn his attention to the business that had un- avoidably been laid aside for some little time.
He directed letters patent, praying the Chancellor to seize the said Alice Kyteler, and also directed the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of Dublin to cite her to respond on a certain day in Kilkenny before the Bishop.
But the bird escaped again out of the hand of the fowler. Dame Alice fled a second time, on this occasion 34 DAME ALICE KYTELER from Dublin, where she had been living, and it is said made her way to England, where she spent the remainder of her days un- molested.
Several of her confederates were subsequently arrested, some of them being apparently in a very humble condition of life, and were committed to prison.
Their names were : Robert of Bristol, a clerk, John Galrussyn, Ellen Galrussyn, Syssok Galrussyn, William Payn de Boly, Petronilla of Meath, her daughter Sarah, 1 Alice the wife of Henry Faber, Annota Lange, and Eva de Brownestown.
When the Bishop arrived in Kilkenny from Dublin he went direct to the prison, and interviewed the unfortunates mentioned above. They all immediately confessed to the charges laid against them, and even went to the length of admitting other crimes of which no mention had been made ; but, according to them, Dame Alice was the mother and mistress of them all.
Upon this the Bishop wrote letters on the 6th of June to the Chancellor, and to the Treasurer, Walter de Islep, requesting them to order the Sheriff to attach the bodies of these people and put 1 Elsewhere given as Basilia.
But a warrant was refused, owing to the fact that William Outlawe was a relation of the one and a close friend of the other ; so at length the Bishop obtained it through the Justiciary, who also consented to deal with the case when he came to Kilkenny.
Before his arrival the Bishop summoned William Outlawe to answer in S. Mary's Church. The latter appeared before him, accompanied by a band of men armed to the teeth ; but in no way overawed by this show of force, De Ledrede formally accused him of heresy, of favouring, receiv- ing, and defending heretics, as well as of usury, perjury, adultery, clericide, and ex- communications in all thirty-four items were brought forward against him, and he was permitted to respond on the arrival of the Justiciary.
When the latter reached Kilkenny, accompanied by the Chancellor, the Treasurer, and the King's Council, the Bishop in their presence recited the charges against Dame Alice, and with the common consent of the lawyers present declared her to be a sorceress, magician, and heretic, and demanded that she should be handed over 36 DAME ALICE KYTELER to the secular arm and have her goods and chattels confiscated as well.
Judging from Friar Clyn's note this took place on the 2nd of July. On the same day the Bishop caused a great fire to be lit in the middle of the town in which he burnt the sack- ful of magical stock-in-trade, consisting of powders, ointments, human nails, hair, herbs, worms, and other abominations, which the reader will remember he had received from Sir John le Poer at an early stage in the proceedings.
Further trouble arose with William Out- lawe, who was backed by the Chancellor and Treasurer, but the Bishop finally suc- ceeded in beating him, and compelled him to submit on his bended knees.
By way of penance he was ordered to hear at least three masses every day for the space of a year, to feed a certain number of poor people, and to cover with lead the chancel of S.
This attack of delirium tremens though Mr. Blair would not have so explained it had a most salutary effect; the constable was in such an abject state of terror lest the Devil should carry him off that he begged Mr.
Blair to sit up with him all Hallow-night, which he did, spending the time very profitably in prayer and exhortation, which encouraged the man to defy Satan and all his works.
The upshot of the matter was, that he became very charitable to the poor, and seems to have entirely renounced his intemperate habits. Rejecting the supernatural element in the above as being merely the fruits of a diseased mind, there is no reason to doubt the truth of the story.
Blair also met with some strange cases of religious hysteria, which became manifest in outbursts of weeping and bodily convulsions, but which he attributed to the Devils "playing the ape, and counterfeiting the works of the Lord.
Incontinent I was assisted to rebuke that lying spirit that disturbed the worship of God, charging the same not to disturb the congregation; and through God's mercy we met with no more of that work.
Blair, warmly congratulated him on the successful exorcism he had practised. If the period treated of in this chapter, viz.
The rebellion of , and the Cromwellian confiscations, that troubled period when the. A letter dated the 13th August , states that "for news we have the strangest that ever was heard of, there inchantments in the Lord of Castleconnell's Castle four miles from Lymerick, several sorts of noyse, sometymes of drums and trumpets, sometimes of other curious musique with heavenly voyces, then fearful screeches, and such outcries that the neighbours near cannot sleepe.
Priests have adventured to be there, but have been cruelly beaten for their paynes, and carryed away they knew not how, some two miles and some four miles.
Moreover were seen in the like manner, after they appear to the view of the neighbours, infinite number of armed men on foote as well as on horseback.
One thing more [ i. Mary Burke with twelve servants yes in the house, and never one hurt, onley they must dance with them every night; they say, Mrs.
Mary come away,. Uppon a Mannour of my Lord Bishoppe of Lymerick, Loughill, hath been seen upon the hill by most of the inhabitants aboundance of armed men marching, and these seene many tymes--and when they come up to them they do not appeare.
These things are very strange, if the cleargie and gentrie say true. During the rebellion an appalling massacre of Protestants took place at Portadown, when about a hundred persons, men, women, and children, were forced over the bridge into the river, and so drowned; the few that could swim, and so managed to reach the shore, were either knocked on the head by the insurgents when they landed, or else were shot.
It is not a matter of surprise that this terrible incident gave rise to legends and stories in which anything strange or out of the common was magnified out of all proportion.
According to one deponent there appeared one evening in the river "a vision or spirit assuming the shape of a woman, waist. The supposed spectre was probably a poor, bereaved woman, demented by grief and terror, who stole out of her hiding-place at night to bewail the murder of her friends, while the weird cries arose from the half-starved dogs of the country-side, together with the wolves which abounded in Ireland at that period, quarrelling and fighting over the corpses.
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JOHN D. SEYMOUR, B. For, with the exception that classic incident, modern writers seem hold that the witch-cult[ 2] never found a home Ireland did elsewhere.
The subject has never been treated fully before, though isolated notices may found here and there; this book, however imperfect may , can fairly claim the first attempt collect the scattered stories and records witchcraft Ireland[ 3] from many out--the-way sources, and present them when collected a concise and palatable form.
Although the volume may furnish little nothing new the history psychology witchcraft general, yet may also claim unwritten chapter Irish history, and show that this respect a considerable portion our country fell into line with the rest Europe.
The reason for this method treatment not hard find. From the Anglo-Norman invasion down the country has been divided into two opposing elements, the Celtic and the English.
England after the Reformation seldom find members the Roman 4. Catholic Church taking any prominent part witch cases, and this equally true Ireland from the same date.
Witchcraft seems have been confined the Protestant party, far can judge from the material our disposal, while probable that the existence the penal laws active quiescent would deter the Roman Catholics from coming into any prominence a matter which would likely attract public attention itself such a marked degree.
A certain[ 5] amount capital has been made some partisan writers out this, but imagine that the ordinary Roman Catholic , let say, the seventeenth century, was one whit less credulous superstitious than Protestant peers, bishops, judges, would indeed form a conception directly variance with experience and common sense.
Both parties had their beliefs, but they followed different channels, and affected public life different ways. Another point with reference the plan this work indicated the title needs a few words explanation.
Sharpe, and other writers note. This forcibly brought out the instance a lawsuit being undertaken the instigation a ghost—a quaint item legal lore.
The judge who adjudicated, the jury and lawyers who took their respective parts such a case, would with equal readiness have tried and found guilty a person the charge witchcraft; and probably did far oftener than are aware.
And , account this remoteness, would seem have been prevented from acquiring and assimilating the varying and complex features which went make the witchcraft conception.
Consequently, when the Anglo-Normans came over, they found that the native Celts had 5. Had this country never suffered a cross-channel invasion, had she been left work out her destiny unaided and uninfluenced her neighbours, quite conceivable that some period her history she would have imbibed the witchcraft spirit, and, with the genius characteristic her, would have blended with her own older beliefs, and would have ultimately evolved a form that creed which would have differed many points from what was held elsewhere.
Another point arises connection with the advance the Reformation Ireland. Unfortunately the persecution witches did not cease the countries where that movement made headway—far from ; [ 9] the contrary was kept with unabated vigour.
But Ireland the conditions were different. The consequent turmoil and clash war gave opportunity for the witchcraft idea come maturity and cast its seeds broadcast; was trampled into the earth the feet the combatants, and, though the minority believed firmly witchcraft and kindred subjects, had not sufficient strength make the belief general throughout the country.
The diffusion books and pamphlets throughout a country district one the recognised ways propagating any particular creed; the friends and opponents Christianity have equally recognised the truth this, and have always utilised the fullest extent.
Now England from the sixteenth century find enormous literary output relative witchcraft, the majority the works being support that belief.
The evil that was wrought such amongst ignorant and superstitious people can well imagined; unbelievers would [ 11]converted, while the credulous would rendered more secure their credulity.
Richard Baxter, John Locke, Meric Casaubon, Joseph Glanvil, and Francis Hutchinson, ranged one side the other. Thus the ordinary Englishman would have reasonable grounds for being ignorant the power witches, the various opinions held relative them.
In a letter  written in the year , the Earl assumes a different appearance. The fellow [Pg 75] went to the ffaire, could not get so much money, and found the gentleman on his return in the same place, who proffered the same money.
The fellow accepting of it, the other bid him come in and receive his money. He carried him into a fine spacious castle, payed him his money every penny, and showed him the fairest black horse that ever was seene, and told him that that horse was the Earl of Desmond, and that he had three shoes alreadye, when he hath the fourthe shoe, which should be very shortlie, then should the Earl be as he was before, thus guarded with many armed men conveying him out of the gates.
The fellow came home, but never was any castle in that place either before or since. Similar tales of horse-dealing with mysterious strangers are told in Scotland in connection with the celebrated Thomas the Rhymer, of Erceldoune.
A Clerical Wizard—Witchcraft cured by a Relic—Raising the Devil in Ireland—How he was cheated by a Doctor of Divinity—Stewart and the Fairies—Rev.
Browne and the Locked Chest. An interesting trial of a clergyman for the practice of unhallowed arts took place early in —interesting and valuable, if for no other reason than that it is the first instance of such a case being discovered in the Rolls at the Record Office not counting those of the Parliament of , though we hope that it will not prove to be a unique entry, but rather the earnest of others.
Who say, that John Aston, late of Mellifont, Co. Louth, clerk, not having the fear of God before his eyes, but being wholly seduced by the devil, on December 1st at Mellifont aforesaid, and on divers other days and places, wickedly and feloniously used, practised, and exercised divers invocations and conjurings of wicked and lying spirits with the intent and purpose that he might find and recover a certain silver cup formerly taken away at Mellifont aforesaid, and also that he might understand where and in what region the most wicked traitor Hugh, Earl of Tyrone, then was, and what he was contriving against the said lord the King and the State of this kingdom of Ireland, and also that he might find out and obtain divers treasures of gold and silver concealed in the earth at Mellifont aforesaid and at Cashel in the county of the Cross of Tipperary, feloniously and against the peace of the said lord the King.
It is to be known that the aforesaid John was taken, and being a prisoner in the [Pg 79] Castle of the City of Dublin by warrant of the lord King was sent into England, therefore further proceedings shall cease.
Possibly the case was unique, and so King James may have been anxious to examine in person such an interesting specimen.
If so, heaven help the poor parson in the grip of such a witch hunter. In the year there comes from the County of Tipperary a strange story of magical spells being counteracted by the application of a holy relic; this is preserved for us in that valuable monastic record, the Triumphalia S.
At Holy Cross Abbey, near Thurles, there was preserved for many years with the greatest veneration a supposed fragment of the True Cross, which attracted vast numbers of people, and by which it was said many wonderful miracles were worked.
Kilkenny , tortured by magical spells veneficis incantationibus collisa , who at the Abbey, in presence of the Rev.
Lord Abbot Bernard [Foulow], placed a girdle round her body that had touched the holy relic. Suddenly she vomited small pieces of cloth and wood, and for a whole month she spat out from her body such things.
The said woman told this miracle to the Rev. Lord Abbot while she was healed by the virtue of the holy Cross.
This he took care to set down in writing. That most diligent gleaner of things strange and uncommon, Mr. Robert Law, to whom we are deeply indebted for much of the matter in this volume, informs us in his Memorialls that in the first half of the seventeenth century there was to be found in Ireland a celebrated Doctor of Divinity, in Holy Orders of the Episcopal Church, who possessed extreme adroitness in raising the Devil—a process that some would have us believe to be commonly practised in Ireland at the present day by persons who have no pretensions to a knowledge of the Black Art!
Law also gives the modus operandi at full length. A [Pg 81] servant-girl in the employment of Major-General Montgomerie at Irvine in Scotland was accused of having stolen some silverwork.
She then cast three of the feathers at him, and bade him return to the place from whence he came. This process she repeated three times, until she had gained all the information she desired; she then went upstairs and told her mistress, with the result that the goods were ultimately recovered.
But escaping Scylla she fell [Pg 82] into Charybdis; her uncanny practices came to the ears of the authorities, and she was apprehended.
When in prison she confessed that she had learnt this particular branch of the Black Art in the house of Dr.
Colville in Ireland, who habitually practised it. That instructor of youth in such un-christian practices, the Rev. Alexander Colville, D. He was possessed of considerable wealth, with which he purchased the Galgorm estate, on which he resided; this subsequently passed into the Mountcashel family through the marriage of his great granddaughter with Stephen Moore, first Baron Kilworth and Viscount Mountcashel.
Where Dr. Colville got the money to purchase so large an estate no one could imagine, and Classon Porter in his useful pamphlet relates for us the manner in which popular rumour solved the problem.
It was said that he had sold himself to the Devil, and that he had purchased the estate with the money his body [Pg 83] and soul had realised.
Scandal even went further still, and gave the exact terms which Dr. Colville had made with the Evil One. These were, that the Devil was at once to give the Doctor his hat full of gold, and that the latter was in return, at a distant but specified day, to deliver himself body and soul to the Devil.
The appointed place of meeting was a lime-kiln; the Devil may have thought that this was a delicate compliment to him on account of the peculiarly homelike atmosphere of the spot, but the Doctor had different ideas.
The Devil produced the gold, whereupon Dr. So far, so good. But there are two sides to every question. Years rolled by, bringing ever nearer and nearer the time at which the account had to be settled, and at length the fatal day dawned.
The Devil arrived [Pg 84] to claim his victim, and found him sitting in his house reading his Bible by the light of a candle, whereupon he directed him to come along with him.
The Doctor begged that he might not be taken away until the candle, by which he was reading, was burned out.
To this the Devil assented, whereupon Dr. Colville promptly extinguished the candle, and putting it between the leaves of the Bible locked it up in the chest where he kept his gold.
It is even said that he gave orders that the candle should be put into his coffin and buried with him.
So, we may presume, Dr. Colville evaded the payment of his debt. Our readers may perchance wonder why such stories as the above should have become connected with the reverend gentleman, and an explanation is not hard to be found.
Colville was a well-known divine, possessed of great wealth inherited lawfully, we may presume , and enjoyed considerable influence in the country-side.
At this time [Pg 85] Ulster was overrun by triumphant Presbyterianism, which the Doctor, as a firm upholder of Episcopacy, opposed with all his might, and thereupon was spoken of with great acerbity by his opponents.
It is not too uncharitable, therefore, to assume that these stories originated with some member of that body, who may well have believed that such had actually happened.
For the next instance of witchcraft and the supernatural in connection with Ireland we are compelled to go beyond the confines of our country.
Though in this the connection with the Green Isle is slight, yet it is of interest as affording an example of that blending of fairy lore with sorcery which is not an uncommon feature of Scottish witchcraft-trials.
The spot on which he was struck remained impervious to pain although a pin was thrust into it. A tale slightly resembling portion of the above comes from the north of Ireland a few years later.
The same man, during this condition he was in, could tell things, and had the knowledge of things in a strange way, which he had not before; and did, indeed, by signs make things known to others which they knew not.
Afterwards he at length, prayer being made for him by others, came to the use of his tongue and ears; but when that knowledge of things he had in his deaf and dumb condition ceased, and when he was asked how he had the knowledge of these things he made signs of, he answered he had that [Pg 88] knowledge when dumb, but how and after what manner he knew not, only he had the impression thereof in his spirit.
This story was related by a godly minister, Mr. Robert Blair, to Mr. John Baird, who knew the truth of it.
The Rev. Robert Blair, M. Echlin, Bishop of Down, or for his description of Oliver Cromwell as a greeting i. On the invitation of Lord Claneboy he arrived in Ireland in , and in the same year was settled as Presbyterian parish minister at Bangor in Co.
Down, with the consent of patron and people; he remained there until , when he was suspended by Dr. Echlin, and was deposed and excommunicated in November, He has left a few writings behind him, and was grandfather of the poet Robert Blair, author of The Grave.
During the years of his ministry at Bangor the following incident occurred to him, which he of course attributes to demonic possession, though homicidal mania [Pg 89] resulting from intemperate habits would be nearer the truth.
I looking upon him saw his eyes like the eyes of a cat in the night, did presently conceive that he had a mischief in his heart, yet I resolved not to refuse what he desired, but I keeped a watchful eye upon him, and stayed at some distance; and being near to the door of the church I went in, and invited him to follow me.
As soon as he entered within the doors he fell atrembling, and I, awondering. His trembling continuing and growing without any speech, I approached to him, and invited him to a seat, wherein he could hardly sit.
The great trembling was like to throw him out of the seat. I laid my arm about him, and asked him what ailed him?
But for a time he could speak none. At last his [Pg 90] shaking ceased, and he began to speak, telling me, that for a long time the Devil had appeared to him; first at Glasgow he bought a horse from him, receiving a sixpence in earnest, and that in the end he offered to him a great purse full of sylver to be his, making no mention of the horse; he said that he blessed himself, and so the buyer with the sylver and gold that was poured out upon the table vanished.
But some days thereafter he appeared to him at his own house, naming him by his name, and said to him, Ye are mine, for I arled you with a sixpence, which yet ye have.
Then said he, I asked his name, and he answered, they call me Nickel Downus I suppose that he repeated evil, that he should have said Nihil Damus.
Being thus molested with these and many other apparitions of the Devil, he left Scotland; but being come to Ireland he did often likewise appear to him, and now of late he still commands me to kill and slay; and oftentimes, says he, my whinger hath been drawn and kept under my cloak to obey his commands, but still something holds my hand that I cannot strike.
But then I asked him [Pg 91] whom he was bidden kill? He answered, any that comes in my way; but. When he uttered these words he fell again atrembling, and was stopped in his speaking, looking lamentably at me, designing me to be the person he aimed at; then he fell a crying and lamenting.
In his choice of a date his Satanic Majesty [Pg 92] showed his respect for popular superstitions. This attack of delirium tremens though Mr.
Blair would not have so explained it had a most salutary effect; the constable was in such an abject state of terror lest the Devil should carry him off that he begged Mr.
Blair to sit up with him all Hallow-night, which he did, spending the time very profitably in prayer and exhortation, which encouraged the man to defy Satan and all his works.
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