Chile und Brasilien vergleichen: Demografie, Wirtschaft, Energie, Sprachen und weitere Gegenüberstellungen. PDF | On Sep 1, , Brigitte Weiffen published Brasilien – Argentinien und Argentinien – Chile: Wachsende Kooperation im Zuge der Demokratisierung | Find. tinien – Ecuador ; Argentinien – Kolumbien ; Brasilien – Uruguay ; Bolivien – Ecuador ; Chile – Argentinien ; Uruguay – Bolivien ; Argentinien.
13 Tage Südamerika-Rundreise Chile - Argentinien - Brasilien ab € 1.785Bis auf die Länder Chile und Ecuador hat Brasilien mit jedem anderen südamerikanischen Staat eine gemeinsame Grenze. Der Name Brasilien geht auf den. Entdecken sie Südamerika mit dieser Rundreise von Trails Reisen. Durchqueren Sie mit uns Chile, Bolivien und Brasilien. 13 Tage Südamerika-Rundreise Chile - Argentinien - Brasilien ab € Südamerikareise von Santiago de Chile nach Rio de Janeiro; Deutschsprechende.
Chile Brasilien Navigation menu VideoBrazil Vs Chile (3-0) Highlights...//Fifa World Cup 2018 Qualifying Match Auf die Romantik folgte der Realismusbei dem Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis als bester und populärster brasilianischer Schriftsteller hervorstach. Zur Bevölkerung zählen hauptsächlich europäische Einwanderer. Hotelübernachtung im Salzhotel.
Independence was achieved in with the creation of the Empire of Brazil , a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system.
The ratification of the first constitution in led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. An authoritarian military junta came to power in and ruled until , after which civilian governance resumed.
Brazil's current constitution , formulated in , defines it as a democratic federal republic. Brazil is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank  and a newly industrialized country ,  with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America.
It is considered an advanced emerging economy ,  having the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal , and eighth by PPP measures.
The word "Brazil" likely comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood , a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" Terra da Santa Cruz ,  but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" Terra do Brasil because of the brazilwood trade.
Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language , an official language of Paraguay , Brazil is called "Pindorama".
This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees". Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas , Luzia Woman , were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo , Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11, years.
The earliest pottery ever found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8, years ago BC. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people,  mostly semi-nomadic, who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture.
The indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups e. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the boundaries between these groups and their subgroups were marked by wars that arose from differences in culture, language and moral beliefs.
However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil in the city of Salvador , which became the capital of a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America.
By the end of the 17th century, sugarcane exports began to decline,  and the discovery of gold by bandeirantes in the s would become the new backbone of the colony's economy, fostering a Brazilian Gold Rush  which attracted thousands of new settlers to Brazil from Portugal and all Portuguese colonies around the world.
Portuguese expeditions known as Bandeiras gradually advanced the Portugal colonial original frontiers in South America to approximately the current Brazilian borders.
The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: to keep under control and eradicate all forms of slave rebellion and resistance, such as the Quilombo of Palmares ,  and to repress all movements for autonomy or independence , such as the Minas Conspiracy.
In , in retaliation for being forced into exile, the Prince Regent ordered the Portuguese conquest of French Guiana. In , to justify continuing to live in Brazil, where the royal court had thrived for six years, the Crown established the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves , thus creating a pluricontinental transatlantic monarchic state.
Liberal Revolution of In , acceding to the demands of revolutionaries who had taken the city of Porto ,  D. Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased, and the Portuguese Cortes , guided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony.
The Brazilian War of Independence , which had already begun along this process, spread through the northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.
As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he came of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly. These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state.
During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in ,  as a result of the British Aberdeen Act , but only in May after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country , was the institution formally abolished.
The foreign-affairs policies of the monarchy dealt with issues with the countries of the Southern Cone with whom Brazil had borders. Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government ,  on 15 November , in disagreement with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites for different reasons , the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.
The early republican government was nothing more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both in Rio de Janeiro and in the states.
Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power. If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries,  only broken by the Acre War — and its involvement in World War I — ,    followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations ;  Internally, from the crisis of Encilhamento    and the Armada Revolts ,  a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability began until the s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian    and military.
In the s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution in , led by the Paulista oligarchy.
The second was a Communist uprising in November , and the last one a putsch attempt by local fascists in May Foreign policy during the Vargas years was marked by the antecedents [ clarification needed ] and World War II.
Brazil remained neutral until August , when the country entered on the allied side ,   after suffering retaliation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy , in a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic.
With the Allied victory in and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier.
Several brief interim governments followed Vargas's suicide. The new regime was intended to be transitory  but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in Slowly, however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that had not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas,  plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva.
He became unpopular during his tenure through failure to control the economic crisis and hyperinflation he inherited from the military regime. In , Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real ,  that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy.
Enhanced by political and economic crises with evidence of involvement by politicians from all the primary political parties in several bribery and tax evasion schemes,   with large street protests for and against her ,  Rousseff was impeached by the Brazilian Congress in Starting in , there is a total change in Brazilian politics, with the overthrow of the left and the rise of conservatism in right.
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,  sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela , Guyana , Suriname and France French overseas region of French Guiana to the north.
It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile. Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,, Brazil is the longest country in the world, spanning 4, km 2, mi from north to south.
Brazil is also the only country in the world that has the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn running through it. Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands.
In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north.
Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.
The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.
The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season , but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than millimetres Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest , recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,  with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado , sustaining the greatest biodiversity.
Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates.
Larger mammals include carnivores pumas , jaguars , ocelots , rare bush dogs , and foxes , and herbivores peccaries , tapirs , anteaters , sloths , opossums , and armadillos.
Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.
By , Brazil's "dramatic policy-driven reduction in Amazon Basin deforestation" was a "global exception in terms of forest change", according to scientific journal Science.
However, in , when the Bolsonaro government came to power, the rate of deforestation of the Amazon rainforest increased sharply threatening to reach a tipping point after it the forest will collapse, having severe consequences for the world.
Using these fallacies, certain countries instead of helping, embarked on the media lies and behaved in a disrespectful manner and with a colonialist spirit.
President Jair Bolsonaro asserted Brazil's sovereignty over the Amazon. According to a GreenPeace article, the natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire, and invasive species.
The form of government is a democratic federative republic , with a presidential system. The current president is Jair Bolsonaro.
The previous president, Michel Temer , replaced Dilma Rousseff after her impeachment. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.
Brazil is a democracy , according to the Democracy Index The political-administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities.
The federation is set on five fundamental principles:  sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labor and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism.
The classic tripartite branches of government executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system are formally established by the Constitution.
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress.
It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. The country has more than 40 active political parties, and only one of them defines itself as a right-wing party PSL , with a clear political imbalance.
The only party that claims to be purely liberal, without further consideration, is Novo. When asked about their ideological spectrum, Brazilian parties tend to give obtuse and non-conclusive answers on the subject.
Brazilian law is based on the civil law legal system  and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role.
Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.
The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution , promulgated on 5 October , and the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.
States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution. This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision-making.
Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings.
The armed forces of Brazil are the largest in Latin America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment. Brazil's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.
Numbering close to , active personnel,  the Brazilian Army has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America , including armored transports and tanks.
Brazil's navy, the second-largest in the Americas, once operated some of the most powerful warships in the world with the two Minas Geraes -class dreadnoughts , which sparked a South American dreadnought race between Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
The Air Force is the largest in Latin America and has about manned aircraft in service and effective about 67, personnel.
Brazil has not been invaded since during the Paraguayan War. Brazil's international relations are based on Article 4 of the Federal Constitution , which establishes non-intervention , self-determination , international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations.
According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while the Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties , as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.
Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's position as a regional power in Latin America , a leader among developing countries , and an emerging world power.
Brazil is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLP , also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.
An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India.
Of these, the first three are affiliated with federal authorities and the last two are subordinate to state governments.
All police forces are the responsibility of the executive branch of any of the federal or state powers. The country still has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide.
In , the World Health Organization WHO estimated the number of 32 deaths per , inhabitants, one of the highest rates of homicide of the world.
Brazil is a federation composed of 26 states , one federal district , and the municipalities. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters.
They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States.
For example, criminal and civil laws can be voted by only the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.
The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern , Northeast , Central-West , Southeast and Southern.
The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government.
Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects.
Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.
Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca county.
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America , the world's ninth largest economy and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity PPP according to estimates.
Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. After rapid growth in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests.
Active in agricultural , mining , manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has a labor force of over million ranking 6th worldwide and unemployment of 6.
The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets , and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.
Brazil's diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services. Part of the production is exported, and another part goes to the domestic market.
In the production of animal proteins, Brazil is today one of the largest countries in the world. In , the country was the world's largest exporter of chicken meat.
In terms of precious stones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst , topaz , agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline , emerald , aquamarine and garnet.
Industry in Brazil — from automobiles , steel and petrochemicals to computers , aircraft and consumer durables — accounted for In the food industry , in , Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world.
Brazil pegged its currency, the real , to the U. However, after the East Asian financial crisis , the Russian default in  and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed float regime  scheme while undergoing a currency crisis , until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January Brazil's central bank repaid the IMF loan in , although it was not due to be repaid until The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies was the Cia.
The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in and the first airplane engine running on ethanol in Recent oil discoveries in the Pre-salt layer have opened the door for a large increase in oil production.
In January this year, 3. Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. The country had 6. Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and recreation , mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel , as well as cultural tourism.
In terms of the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index TTCI , which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil ranked in the 28st place at the world's level, third in the Americas , after Canada and United States.
Brazil's main competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of all countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage sites.
The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped ranked th , with the quality of roads ranking in th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness ranked th , due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation.
Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in , up from th in According to the World Tourism Organization WTO , international travel to Brazil accelerated in , particularly during and However, in a slow-down took place, and international arrivals had almost no growth in — This favorable trend is the result of the strong devaluation of the US dollar against the Brazilian Real , which began in , but which makes Brazil a more expensive international destination.
This trend changed in , when both visitors and revenues fell as a result of the Great Recession of — Despite continuing record-breaking international tourism revenues, the number of Brazilian tourists travelling overseas has been growing steadily since , resulting in a net negative foreign exchange balance, as more money is spent abroad by Brazilians than comes in as receipts from international tourists visiting Brazil.
In , tourism contributed with 3. Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies.
The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources to launch vehicles, and manufacture of satellites.
Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America  with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences, and Brazil is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fabrication plant , the CEITEC.
Brazil also has a large number of outstanding scientific personalities. Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic.
The road system totaled 1. Kubitschek was responsible for the installation of major car manufacturers in the country Volkswagen , Ford and General Motors arrived in Brazil during his rule and one of the points used to attract them was support for the construction of highways.
With the implementation of Fiat in ending an automobile market closed loop, from the end of the s the country has received large foreign direct investments installing in its territory other major car manufacturers and utilities, such as Iveco , Renault , Peugeot , Citroen , Honda , Mitsubishi , Mercedes-Benz , BMW , Hyundai , Toyota among others.
Brazil's railway system has been declining since , when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The country has an extensive rail network of 28, kilometres 17, miles in length, the tenth largest network in the world.
There are about 2, airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.
For freight transport waterways are of importance, e. The country also has 50, kilometres 31, miles of waterways.
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos. The Brazilian public health system, the Unified Health System SUS , is managed and provided by all levels of government,  being the largest system of this type in the world.
Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. In , Brazil had 1.
Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care system in , there are still several public health problems in Brazil.
In , the main points to be solved were the high infant 2. The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases Finally, external but preventable factors such as car accidents, violence and suicide caused The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Union , the states , the Federal District , and the municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems.
Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources.
According to the IBGE , in , the literacy rate of the population was Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses , which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers.
Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense.
Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education.
Kindergarten , elementary and medium education are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental , visual or hearing.
Of the top 20 Latin American universities, eight are Brazilian. Most of them are public. Brazil's private institutions tend to be more exclusive and offer better quality education, so many high-income families send their children there.
The result is a segregated educational system that reflects extreme income disparities and reinforces social inequality. However, efforts to change this are making impacts.
The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro , the first newspaper published in the country, began to circulate on 10 September Radio broadcasting began on 7 September , with a speech by then President Pessoa, and was formalized on 20 April with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro.
The first census in Brazil was carried out in and recorded a population of 9,, In the s the annual population growth rate was 2.
In , the illiteracy rate was It was highest In , the National Indian Foundation estimated that Brazil has 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from their estimate of 40 in Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.
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